Documentation summary

HED publications

Journal articles

Conceptual framework for HED and path for future development:

Makeig, S. and K. Robbins (2024).
Events in context—The HED framework for the study of brain, experience and behavior.
Front. Neuroinform. Vol. 18 Research Topic 15 Years of impact, open neuroscience.

Explanation of the history, development, and motivation for third generation HED:

Robbins, K., Truong, D., Jones, A., Callanan, I., and S. Makeig (2022).
Building FAIR functionality: Annotating events in time series data using Hierarchical Event Descriptors (HED).
Neuroinformatics Special Issue Building the NeuroCommons. Neuroinformatics

Detailed case study in using HED-3G for tagging:

Robbins, K., Truong, D., Appelhoff, S., Delorme, A., and S. Makeig (2021).
Capturing the nature of events and event context using Hierarchical Event Descriptors (HED).
NeuroImage Special Issue Practice in MEEG. NeuroImage 245 (2021) 118766.


Hierarchical Event Descriptor library schema for EEG data annotation:

Pal Attia, T., Robbins, K., Beniczky, S., Bosch-Bayard, J., Delorme, A., Lundstrom, B., Rogers, C., Rampp, S.,
Valdes-Sosa, P., Truong, D., Worrell, G., Makeig, S., and D. Hermes (2023).

Framework for annotating and analyzing events in context:

Makeig, S. and K. Robbins (2023 under review).
Events in context - A framework for the study of brain, experience and behavior. Preprint:
DOI: 10.31234/

Book chapters (preprints)

Truong, D., Robbins, K., Delorme, A., and S. Makeig (in press).
End-to-end processing of M/EEG data with BIDS, HED, and EEGLAB.
in Methods for analyzing large neuroimaging datasets edited by Whelan and Lemaitre.

Denissen, D., Richlan, F., Birklbauer, J., Pawlik, M., Ravenschlag, A., Himmelstoss, N., Hutzler, F. and K. Robbins (in press).
Actionable event annotation and analysis in fMRI: A practical guide to event handling.
in Methods for analyzing large neuroimaging datasets edited by Whelan and Lemaitre.

HED schema viewer

The HED schema is usually developed in .mediawiki format and converted to XML for use by tools. However, researchers wishing to tag datasets will find both of these views hard to read. All versions of the standard schema and library schemas including the prerelease versions available via the expandable HTML viewer. The .mediawiki sources can be viewed on the **hed-schemas GitHub repository using GitHub’s default markdown viewer.

HED Websites

The following is a summary of the HED-related websites:



HED project homepage

HED resources (docs)

HED Wikipedia Page


HED specification

CTAGGER executable jar


HED organization

HED specification

HED examples and datasets

HED Python tools

HED Javascript code

HED Matlab code and EEGLAB support

HED web deployment

HED-2G support

CTAGGER resources

Online tools

HED tools

HED tools (development)

HED-2G support

HED working documents

Mapping of HED terms and their descriptions to known ontologies is:

Two other working documents hold portions of the HED-3G specification that are under development and will not be finalized for Release 1: